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The Curious Case of Abed Nadir: Community and ‘pop-Orientalism’

Contributed by Yazan Al-Saadi

“Despite the variety and the differences, and however much we proclaim the contrary, what the media produce is neither spontaneous nor completely “free:” “news” does not just happen, pictures and ideas do not merely spring from reality into our eyes and minds, truth is not directly available, we do not have unrestrained variety at our disposal.

For like all modes of communication, television, radio, and newspapers observe certain rules and conventions to get things across intelligibly, and it is these, often more than the reality being conveyed, that shape the material delivered by the media.” - Edward Said, 1997

 

Community is one of the most intelligent, sophisticated, and greatest comedy shows on American television. It has so much heart, depth, and breadth wrapped up in a remarkable ensemble of wonderful multi-dimensional characters. Take notes people; this is how TV should be.

For those of you who do not know the premise of the show (you, uncultured flesh-bots), basically, the story revolves around a study group of seven individuals within a pathetic excuse of a community college called Greendale. It is a show that is truly difficult to describe. Not only is it about the characters and the setting, but also, it’s a show that takes risks in providing stimulating meta-commentary on the nature and structure of television shows in general.  Watching the show over the past three years, one really gets the feeling that the writers, actors, and all those in-between, actually care about their work and tirelessly churn out great stories.

But…Something is off, at least to me, with one particular character in Community. A character that is both, arguably, the most popular and one that stands at the heart of the show: Abed Nadir.

According to the character’s fictional biography, Abed Nadir is a Muslim hybrid Palestinian-Pole, born in Palestine (in Gaza) and later moved to the US with his family. He is socially awkward and relies on forms of pop-culture to relate to people. Abed is the observer of the group and plays the role akin to the “Greek Choir”, typically breaking the Fourth Wall and commenting in a hilariously dead pan manner on the circumstance of the moment. He is, in effect, “the umbilical cord” for both the writers and the viewers.

Interestingly, Abed Nadir is loosely inspired by Dan Harmon’s (Community’s creator and show runner) real-life friend Abed Gheith, a Palestinian who was born in San Francisco. In fact, Dan Harmon initially campaigned for Gheith to get the part, but Danny Pudi scooped up the role. Danny Pudi, an American of Indian and Polish descent, is a talented actor who really made Abed Nadir his own.  At this moment I can’t imagine anyone else really selling with the same comedic timing and unique voice.

On a superficial level, having an Arab and a Muslim as a normal character on the American screen does leave one to stop and take notice; especially, when they aren’t blowing up, hijacking, or screaming incoherently or are planning to kill Americans/Westerns because they just don’t like freedom (or something).

 It’s frankly outstanding the mountains of movies, TV shows, comic books, and more in which Arabs and Muslims are presented within a violent, misshapen past-trapped reality. Jack Shaheen’s excellent research on the matter and the documentary based off his work, Reel Bad Arabs, reveals the absolute  ridiculous level it has been over the course of the 20th and 21st century. Abed Nadir, on the surface, is just a normal guy who really likes pop culture, which isn’t profound but says much about the rarity of healthy non-white and non-Judeo-Christian characters in American fiction. That is a good thing; we can cautiously consider this “progress”.

Yet, underneath the surface, there are still certain issues that make this character and his portrayal somewhat unsettling.

Take the fact that Danny Pudi is playing an Arab. In the context of American movies and television, there seems to be a systematic trend of getting “brown people”, no matter what nationality or culture, to play other “brown people”; this is particularly so with south Asians playing Arabs.

For non-‘browns’, this is like if a Texan was repeatedly used to play a Swede (They are both white, after all), or a Thai to play a Japanese (They both are Asian, no?) and so on.  This would not be an issue if it’s rare and if roles are doled out based on acting merit (which I do think Pudi deserves the role) but the sheer systematic nature of the process demands some serious questions. I hypothesize that within the shiny corridors of Hollywood and American network television brown folks are seen as a homogenous blob, without any consideration for their differences and their vibrancy. Thus they are completely interchangeable (They’ve got the same hue, who’s gonna notice, amirite?).

Granted, there is this mind-numbingly slow evolution in terms of having diverse and multi-dimensional characters within American mainstream fiction, particularly with the recent wave of “Brown People” in television as Pudi pointed out in an interview:

I‘m just thankful that my character is not just a one dimensional character. There’s a lot to him, you know. I think times have changed a lot from the days of back in the early ‘90s, when I was growing up and you had Dhalsim in Street Fighter, Apu on The Simpsons, or magic rocks protecting Indian villages in Indiana Jones. The fact that I get to play a character that‘s really well rounded and kind of odd and quirky and exploring the world, is just so wonderful.”

Nevertheless, this evolutionary awareness of other cultures loses the ground it develops when producers and the networks continue the homogeneity in dealing with ‘Brown People’ (or any other group of people).  On the other hand, it could be worse. They could proceed to whitewash everything (i.e. that depressingly-awful Prince of Persia and the upcoming cluster-**** that will be Akira).

Furthermore, Abed’s ethnicity and religion is simple window dressing; it has no effect on the character. In the context of the show, it shouldn’t be at the forefront at every moment, per say, because I think it would be handled in such an awkward way and it’s not a political show. Still, I wouldn’t mind an iota of positive acknowledgment and it seems like they (the writers) are missing an opportunity here (he might as well be any other nationality and religion and there’s no consequence, while that is not true for the other characters).

Ponder with me for a moment, these examples.

Abed is half-Palestinian from Gaza. You know, Gaza. That small slice of land stuffed-full with refugees and is considered the world’s largest open air prison, illegally blockaded by Israel and has been brutally attacked by the Zionist State over and over and over again since 1947. Wouldn’t that matter to Abed, to some degree?  Wouldn’t the issue of Palestinian refugees, statelessness, and collective desolation have some form of impact on his personality since he is a refugee? I understand that there is this fetish-like awe towards Israel and Israelis in American pop culture and, therefore, such attempts are limited, restricted, and risky but the silence by this half-Palestinian character is quite striking.

Beyond ethnicity, when Abed’s religion is noted what is invoked are the stereotypical (lazy) and grossly offensive tropes that outsiders have of Islam. One joke, which comes and goes very quickly, occurred during the Christmas episode of the first season. It was an argument regarding religion, where in the midst of the group’s typically endearing bickering, this line of dialogue popped up:

Britta: Guys, are we really going to let religion divide us? I think there’s one thing we can all agree on.

Abed: I get 72 virgins in heaven.

Britta: …No.

My, how I hate that ‘72-Virgin’ concept and its unending continuation (it just won’t die). As Leslie Hazleton, speaking as an outsider reading the Quran in this fascinating TED Talk, points out it’s not in the Quran (I resort to this white woman’s voice because she’s old, British, and so adorable that you’d probably take her word for it). Its origins are debated and considered by the vast majority as non-canonical.  Personally, I, living in West Asia and studying religion here, only started hearing about this ‘72-Virgin’ thing from Western media agencies and self-proclaimed ‘experts’ post-9/11 as an elaborate explanation to why do “Muzzees” commit  violence (Yeah, you got us. It’s all about an eternity of sex, patriarchal paradigm-style).

Another example comes up with Abed’s relationship with his father (played by a South Asian), who runs a falafel restaurant (Gee, that’s original). He’s this harsh fellow that thinks American culture is decadent or whatever and it comes across when Abed’s cousin from Gaza comes to visit (for the life of me I don’t know how the Americans gave her a visa and how does she easily leave Gaza since it is, you know, under a blockade – let’s leave that to suspension of disbelief).

What’s so groan-inducing with this particular story is that the cousin, being female, is completely covered in niqab (because, of course, all female Muslims wear the niqab) and there is this b-plot about how she wants to jump on a trampoline but Abed’s father won’t let her (because, I’m assuming, he’s simply an asshole).  Here methinks the writers thought: “Hey, she’s female and Muslim! ENTER REPRESSED FEMALE PLOT POINT, POST HASTE!”

These are the examples we are left with when Abed’s religion and culture is in the forefront. They are played upon casually and mentioned off the cuff, but its effect is hugely damaging as it perpetuates these stale vulgar stereotypes about Muslims and Arabs.

I know I may sound obsessive and some may even say, “So what’s the problem? It ain’t real!”

You are right, it’s not real…

…But, fiction is powerfully influential and it has become very complex. Fiction shapes our reality just as much as reality shapes our fictions, and fiction is an excellent marker for the state of society at the time it manifests. Even more, the forms of racism, discrimination, and the negativities within fiction have adapted to the times – they come in seemingly-harmless easily-digestible shiny packages that hide a greater subtext of distortions, misconceptions, and degradation.

This is what I term “pop-Orientalism” in our Twitter Age.

Even though Abed is seemingly multi-dimensional and is portrayed as a quirky, fun, average guy on the surface, when it comes to tackling or acknowledging other elements of his identity, the writers are tapping into that pop-Orientalist well. This is what makes Abed troubling for me – here is a positive likable character that’s both a ‘token’, an avatar for the writer, and perpetuates foreign-based ideas on Arabs and Muslims on American television. He is a character who seems representative of that “progress” in incorporating the ‘other’, while simultaneously is part of the problem.

I love Community, it deserves my love and I expect that it show me love too. Out of love, I’ve tried to ignore these flaws, but I can’t anymore and I’m not alone in feeling this way about Abed.

So Dan Harmon and the rest of you in the Community writing staff, if you’ve stumbled onto this humble rambling of mine, I’m throwing down the gauntlet. Community is a clever subversive piece of entertainment and an excellent way to enjoy a half -hour of television. Therefore, I challenge you to attempt to tackle Abed’s culture, his religion, and this other part of his identity in a way that doesn’t seem pitiful, stereotypical, or just plain stupid. I challenge you to give me a hilarious Ramadan episode.

Can you escape the pop-Orientalist trap?

 

Yazan Al-Saadi holds a BA Honors in Economics from Queen’s University, Canada and a Master’s of Arts in Globalization, Development, and International Law from the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. He is currently working as a journalist and editor for an English-language newspaper in Kuwait and is a freelance researcher and writer. 

Illustration by Nada Dalloul. You can see her work here: http://www.nadadalloul.com/

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Discussion

48 Responses to “The Curious Case of Abed Nadir: Community and ‘pop-Orientalism’”

  1. "I understand that there is this fetish-like awe towards Israel and Israelis in American pop culture and, therefore, such attempts are limited, restricted, and risky but the silence by this half-Palestinian character is quite striking." <-striking indeed

    Posted by jja | October 28, 2011, 7:19 pm
    • I loved this comment. I thought it was totally true of the world we live in today. If you say ANYTHING about the genocide that is happening by the Israeli government you are automatically labeled as being anti-semetic. Which, for myself, I feel could not be further from the truth. My issue is not Jewish people or the religion, and what a lot of people seem to not know about Islam is that they see it as part of their religion, the same God, the same books, etc, but with the Isreali government that kills innocent people and then our news in the states says little to nothing about it. It is shameful.

      Posted by M. Amer | January 20, 2013, 9:44 pm
      • British occupying soldiers in India used to bar Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists and Muslims (Shia and Sunni) from their establishments with signs that said, "No Indians or dogs." Do you see how segregation, oppression, and colonialism are built on a foundational assumption that "all brown people are the same"? You're doing essentially the same thing.

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  2. Hey, interesting read, but I have some concerns

    I think the part about Abed being Palestinian, and thus having to be concerned with the conflict of his homeland is a bit disingenuous. The show has clearly written Abed as someone obsessed with pop culture because he (for whatever reason) cannot deal with the real world at face value. The Christmas episode clearly demonstrates this. It makes perfect sense to suggest that Abed would actively NOT engage with real world issues.

    Also, as a son of an immigrant, I don't think the first impulse would be to highlight the fact that he's different. The show is set in Colorado (from what I know, not the most diverse place in America). Abed's reluctance to draw attention to his ethnicity, or his willingness to engage in (what I feel are pretty harmless, and obviously ironic) Muslim jokes could also have a real-world basis to it.

    I essentially have an issue when characters in films or television have to address larger issues, such as Israel/Palestine or Islamophobia. While I agree that the media is an important player in this regard, I also feel that these ideological expectations on our part are limiting. Essentially, your argument requires Abed to be a representative for a diverse set of people, and his believability as a person should come second.
    I think treating Abed as a human being, with faults and insecurities, is in the long run a wiser form of dealing with the "otherness" of the Oriental.

    Also, finally – you don't really address the fact that Abed is from two different cultures and ethnicities. I think this makes pushing one side of the story – his Islamic and Palestinian roots – far more problematic. As someone with a mixed background, I completely identify Abed's unwillingness to engage on a religious or ethnic level. One can be both Polish and Palestinian (in Abed's case) and feel little connection to either one as a result of growing up in a third, liminal space.

    Good article, keep it up

    Posted by Dsides 89 | November 6, 2011, 3:33 pm
    • Fantastic comment, absolutely awesome, 10/10.

      Seriously, couldn’t have said it better myself. I feel exactly the same but had no idea how to formulate the words, and you took them straight out of my mouth. All your points were excellent and spot on. I love you. Seriously. Cool. Cool cool cool.

      Posted by ET | August 1, 2014, 7:33 am
  3. I thought it was interesting you left out the fact that the woman Abed and Troy now live with is JEWISH. And that Troy is a Jehovah’s Witness…Also..how many times have you seen Hollywood get a brownish person to play an Israeli….I like having Abed as a positive Arab character…who occasionally makes fun of a stereotype…like Annie who fufills the Jewish stereotype quite often….I love Community as a Jewish American..but if you think your ethnicity is the only one subjected to ridcule in media…you’re not watching as much tele as Abed and me.

    Posted by Jay | January 3, 2012, 12:53 pm
    • Jay as far as far as I know muslims have no problem with the jews personally . there could be a bit of sensitivity regarding the Palestinian issue , but other than that it's cool . Also , you should know that Muslim men are allowed to marry Jewish women .. not live with them but whatever .
      I really love how they made a Muslim into cool lovable character without people having second thoughts weather they should like him or not since he's muslim , still .. if you are making a show that's more accurate to other tv shows than real life crisis then I think there is a small problem .
      the guy here was just pointing out a mistake out of the many that's been made about a Muslim guy .. for example the language in the first episodes where Abed speaks Arabic , they were obviously using google translate as a recourse rather than using a better one like for instance asking the real Abed !
      I don't know where are you from but I would be so annoyed when there's a big lack of cultural accuracy , weather it's mine or not . that was the whole point of this article . and I thank the article writer for doing this because it's been going on my mind for a while

      Posted by Sara | December 23, 2012, 4:33 am
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  4. Good read, and highlights one of my few problems with Community. I would agree with the above poster that Pavel isn't a genuine depiction of a Polish person, but at the same time the plot indicates that Abed is from Palestine, and given that his mother doesn't play nearly as major a role in his life as his father at this point due to their divorce, it would make sense that Abed feels a closer connection to the Palestinian side of his upbringing-to say nothing of the fact that he would most certainly feel characterized as an Arab by those around him, given his upbringing as the son of a falafel hut owner in Colorado(I thought it was California but never paid that close attention so I'll OP's word for it, not that I think it would change a great deal were it set in California). Likewise, in a group that is as open as the study group's, I don't feel like Abed would be so uncomfortable as to never open up about his roots. I would say in Community's defense that the worst stereotypical offenses were perpetrated in the first season before the show really found its direction, but there really hasn't been a positive evolution from "relatively neutral" over the past year and a half. Dan Harmon is one of the most talented writers on television right now and he could definitely do a Palestine or Islam oriented story line justice.

    I tweeted this to Dan Harmon. Whether he agrees or not, I'm interested to see what he thinks if he gets a chance to read it.

    Posted by James | February 24, 2012, 10:39 pm
  5. Dan Harmon responded on twitter, but with respect, I think he missed the point of the blog about Abed's background. This is an open response to Dan.

    Dan on twitter: "if the gauntlet is to make sure character race "properly" reflects actor complexion: Slippery slope."

    That is not the gauntlet. Reducing cultural/national/religious identity to "complexion" is the problem. That is literally what racism is– treating all people with the same complexion as if they are fungible, or treating people as if their complexion forms their identity. Nowhere in this blog did the author mention complexion. He says this:

    "Abed is half-Palestinian from Gaza. You know, Gaza. That small slice
    of land stuffed-full with refugees and is considered the world’s
    largest open air prison, illegally blockaded by Israel and has been
    brutally attacked by the Zionist State over and over and over again
    since 1947. Wouldn’t that matter to Abed, to some degree? Wouldn’t
    the issue of Palestinian refugees, statelessness, and collective
    desolation have some form of impact on his personality since he is a
    refugee?"

    The fact that you reduce the Abed's family's Palestinian struggle to "complexion" is the problem, that is what I object to.

    Dan on twitter: "could've easily made Abed "half Indian." back then, felt less important than…racist?"

    That's not racist. Treating all brown people as if they are fungible is racist. White American culture is inherently racist, which is why you are programmed to think cultural sensitivity = racism, but that is backwards. It takes work to deprogram ourselves, but I submit that it is important to do so, especially if one happens to have a voice in our cultural discourse.

    British occupying soldiers in India used to bar Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists and Muslims (Shia and Sunni) from their establishments with signs that said, "No Indians or dogs." Do you see how segregation, oppression, and colonialism are built on a foundational assumption that "all brown people are the same"? You're doing essentially the same thing.

    Dan on twitter: "I also feel like petitioning the ministry of propaganda to become race experts has yet to raise anyone's wage. TV is a decoy"

    I probably don't need to tell you that "TV is a decoy" is a rationalization. You make creative choices for a living, and here is an area where your choices are hurtful, damaging, offensive. Abed's family is presumably full of refugees and political prisoners, people whose land was stolen by Israel, people who were killed or tortured or jailed for decades by a foreign occupying army that saw them as nothing more than brown people-slash-dogs. I hope you'll make an effort to explore more than his brownness, or at least stop talking about cultural identity as if it's nothing more than complexion.

    Posted by 345345345 | February 26, 2012, 6:12 pm
  6. What a piece of politicking nonsense. First of all, Gaza is not an "open air prison". It is ruled by Palestnians, people can move about freely inside and get in and out through Egypt – Israel has no control over that crossing. The only reason for the blockade is to reduce the number and lethality of weapons like the missiles the all-so-innocent Gazans launch at Israel. There have been numerous weapon smuggling efforts like the Karine A – http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace… and Israel allows aid from ships to pass after inspection. If they'd stop trying to attack Israel, the blockade would end – even the notorious anti-UN found that the blockade was legal.

    The claim about stolen land is nonsense too – http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths… – and so little did Israel want to "steal Palestinian land" that Begin asked Sadat to take it, which he refused to do.

    Posted by Rich S | February 27, 2012, 3:52 pm
    • The Rafah crossing is closed. Israel is an apartheid state, like South Africa in the 80s. Palestinians live under martial law, Israel keeps them locked up, demolishing their homes, confiscating their land, murdering and arresting anyone they want, with no respect for human rights or international law. They restrict even the food that enters, over 50% of Palestinian children are malnourished. Israel has turned Palestine into a concentration camp.

      Posted by 345345345 | February 28, 2012, 2:24 am
    • You know how after WWII there was a wall through Berlin? It was called the Berlin Wall, if that rings a bell. The wall that surrounds Palestine is twice the height of the Berlin wall. Check out Jews for Justice – http://jfjfp.com/ or the book by the noted Israeli historian Ilan Pappe 'The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine'. Then tell me that this is just a bunch of politicking nonsense. And you know what, yes, Palestinians had bombs…because they are trying to fight back! Go into the homes in Palestine, they have no weapons, there is no army to protect them so they must turn to so called 'terrorist' to protect them. And their bombs are this dinky little things that hardly hit anything at all, not that it make it okay but you want to say missiles and you think they have computers and tracking? They don't! Israel receives 30 BILLION dollars a year from the USA. Imagine what 30 billion dollars looks like compared to people that are almost starved. Go to Palestine. You don't have to go to Gaza. Go to any part of Palestine and come back and tell me what is being done is right.

      Posted by M. Amer | January 20, 2013, 10:13 pm
  7. Isn't it fair to say that Abed's obsession with pop-culture could have affected his view of his own religion? He was as he said "raised by tv" and it is the media pushing these stereotypes and having a larger impact on his life and his views then his own father who would have been able to teach him the real facts.

    Posted by Ciara | May 29, 2012, 12:42 pm
  8. Thank you for this post! I just discovered Community, and have been uncomfortable from the very very beginning about why Abed's character was not Indian, as he is so obviously Indian! I had to really search to find this blog post… It is not definitely about complexion ! That is incredibly ignorant of Dan Harmon to be so reductive, and really miss the mark as to not be tokenistic/racist about such a rich and endearing character. I would love this show so much more if it wasn't for this glaring mistake. I write this as an South East Asian woman in Australia. Thank you.

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  13. I'm not an advocate of reducing people's culture to their skin color but think about this for a second. Danny Pudi is an amazing actor, he's managed to take a cold robotic character and make him lovable, he's made us care for this quiet distant misfit. If he walked in and blew the audition do you think the creators of the show would say ''We'll he's not very good but he's brown so lets take him''.

    This happens all the time with British actors portraying Americans or vice versa and nobody cares, nobody shouts about how the characters native culture is being disregarded in this case.

    Posted by Ryan | March 5, 2013, 10:18 am
  14. Recall the episode when the group tries to get Abed a girlfriend and they later find out she's already dating a white guy who looks just like him, so they call him white Abed. Jeff ask's ''So does that make Abed brown Joey?'' to which Shirley replies ''Well if you wanna get racist about it!'' I see a similar scenario here, we want to appear culturally sensitive so we rely on a cultural double standard that favors the underdog.

    Danny is simply the best actor for the role, case closed. I don't care what country he's from or how he got to sit at that study table because once he got there you knew he deserved it.

    Posted by Ryan | March 5, 2013, 10:18 am
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